Den 9. december 1996 modtog den græske forsker George Vithoulkas den Alternative Nobelpris for sin forskning inden for homøopatien. Den blev overrakt i Sveriges Rigsdag i Stockholm. Den årlige uddeling af den tyske forskerpris i Baden-Baden, gik i 1995 til en polsk forsker, der for første gang kunne demonstrere effekten af homøopatisk behandling i et videnskabeligt forsøg. Behandlingen tilstræber en udledning af giftstoffer fra kroppen, og en stimulering af de selvhelbredende kræfter. Den blev grundlagt af den tyske læge Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843). Der er fra den traditionelle homøopati udviklet flere "skoler". Fælles er anvendelsen af de samme stoffer til helbredelse som dem, der har gjort kroppen syg. Disse såkaldte homotoxiner bliver fremstillet i meget store fortyndinger og bliver tilført som dråber, piller eller til indsprøjtning. Med en skolemedicinsk baggrund er det svært at forestille sig på hvilket niveau effekten udspilles. Der er formentlig tale om hidtil ukendte principper med baggrund i kvantefysikken.
Der hævdes at være god effekt på immunsystemet og de funktionelle, såkaldte psykosomatiske sygdomme, hvor skolemedicinen har begrænset succes: hyppige infektioner hos børn, migræne, psoriasis, gigt og allergi. Den supplerer således skolemedicinen fint. Behandlingen er ufarlig, men kan have bivirkninger, der viser sig ved en forventet forværring af symptomerne i starten. I 1991 foreslog Europaparlamentet, at homøopatiske stoffer blev fritaget for bivirkningsregistrering på grund af sin uskadelighed. ORIGINAL PAPER
The homeopathic approach to the treatment of symptoms of oestrogen withdrawal in breast cancer patients. A prospective observational study
E. A. Thompson and D. Reilly
Glasgow Homeopathic Hospital, 1053 Great Western Road, Glasgow, Scotland, G12 0XQ, UK
Received 25 September 2002; revised 6 January 2003; accepted 24 March 2003.; Available online 2 July 2003.
This paper reports on an investigation of the homeopathic approach to the management of symptoms of oestrogen withdrawal in women with breast cancer. Forty-five patients entered the study. The most common presenting symptoms were hot flushes (HF) (n=38), mood disturbance (n=23), joint pain (n=12), and fatigue (n=16). Other symptoms included sleeplessness, reduced libido, weight gain, cystitis, vaginal dryness and skin eruptions. The active intervention was an individualised homeopathic medicine. Forty women (89%) completed the study. Significant improvements in mean symptom scores were seen over the study period and for the primary end-point ‘the effect on daily living’ scores. Symptoms other than HF such as fatigue and mood disturbance appear to be helped. Significant improvements in anxiety, depression and quality of life were demonstrated over the study period. The homeopathic approach appears to be clinically useful in the management of oestrogen withdrawal symptoms in women with breast cancer whether on or off Tamoxifen and improves mood disturbance. A placebo-controlled trial would be the next stage in this line of inquiry.
Author Keywords: homeopathy; symptoms of oestrogen withdrawal; breast cancer
Corresponding author. Correspondence: EA Thompson, Consultant Homeopathic Physician and Honorary Senior Lecturer in Palliative Medicine, Bristol Homeopathic Hospital, Cotham Hill, , Bristol BS6 6JU, , UK
Homeopathic treatment of radiation-induced itching in breast cancer patients. A prospective observational study
O Schlappack. Department of Radiotherapy and Radiobiology, University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20 A-1090 Vienna, Austria
Received 15 August 2003; revised 5 May 2004; accepted 21 June 2004. Available online 2 October 2004.
Following surgery for carcinoma of the breast, patients receive local radiotherapy. This can cause itching, which may be severe, in the radiation field. The affected skin usually is dry, rough and red. Twenty-five patients were treated homeopathically for radiation-induced itching. Fourteen patients developed itching during their course of postoperative radiation at 27 days median (range: 14–40). Eleven patients experienced itching in the radiation field after completion of treatment (median 21 days) after the end of their radiation treatment. A single dose of an individually selected homeopathic medicine in 30C dilution was given in the clinic, on the basis of repertorisation. Patients were asked to record a visual analogue scale (VAS) before prescription of the homeopathic medicine and at follow-up.
Patients were evaluated at median 3 days (range: 1–27 days) after administration of the homeopathic medicine. In total, 14 of 25 patients (56%) responded to the first medicine. Nine patients had a second medicine, seven responded. Altogether 21 of 25 (84%) patients were successfully treated. The following medicines were employed successfully: Fl-ac 9/13, Rhus-t 3/5, Caust 2/3, Ign 2/2, Psor 2/2, γ-ray 2/2 and Kali-bi 1/1. The VAS measurements before and after homeopathic treatment showed a reduction of the median value of 64mm (range: 20–100mm) to 34mm (median; range: 0–84mm). Homeopathic treatment of radiation-induced itching appears quite successful. The most frequently indicated and most frequently effective medicine was Fluoric acid. An approach that allows greater understanding of the patient as a whole in the short time available in a busy clinic may be required.
Keywords: breast cancer; radiotherapy; itching; homeopathy; fluoric acid
Correspondence: Otto Schlappack, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiobiology, University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna, Austria.
Effect of Atropa belladonna and Echinacea angustifolia in homeopathic dilution on experimental peritonitis
, F.F Perazzo2
, J.C.T Carvalho1, 2
, K.S Martinho3
, C. de O Massoco1
and L.V. Bonamin1, 3, 4,1
Faculty of Health Sciences of São Paulo, FACIS, Instituto Brasileiro de Estudos Homeopáticos, IBEHE, Rua Bartolomeu de Gusmão, 86. 04111-020 São Paulo, SP, Brazil. 2
Laboratory of Phytopharmaceuticals, Universidade de Alfenas, Alfenas, MG, Brazil 3
Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Universidade de Santo Amaro, São Paulo, SP, Brazil 4
Laboratory of Pathology, Instituto de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Paulista, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
Received 6 February 2004; revised 15 April 2004; accepted 5 July 2004. Available online 2 October 2004. Atropa belladonna
and Echinacea angustifolia
have been used in homeopathy as modulators of inflammatory processes, in simple potency or ‘accord of potencies’, as recommended by homotoxicology. We evaluated their effects on leukocyte migration and macrophage activity induced by experimental peritonitis in vivo
. Mice were injected (i.p.) with LPS (1.0mg/kg) and treated (0.3ml/10g/day, s.c.) with different commercial forms of these medicines. Echinacea angustifolia D4
—a simple potency preparation—and Belladonna Homaccord®
, Belladonna Injeel®
, Belladonna Injeel Forte®
, Echinacea Injeel®
and Echinacea Injeel Forte®
—all in ‘accord of potencies’—were tested.
The association of A. belladonna and E. angustifolia in ‘accord of potencies’ produced an increase of polymorphonuclear cell migration (Kruskal-Wallis, P=0.03) and a decrease of mononuclear cell percentages (Kruskal-Wallis, P 0.04), when compared with control, mainly in preparations containing low potencies. The proportion of degenerate leukocytes was lower in the treated groups, compared to a control group (P 0.05). The treated groups showed increased phagocytosis (P 0.05), mainly in preparations containing high potencies. Our results suggest that A. belladonna and E. angustifolia, when prepared in ‘accord of potencies’, modulate peritoneal inflammatory reaction and have a cytoprotective action on leukocytes.
Keywords: homeopathy; homotoxicology; macrophage; LPS; Atropa belladonna; Echinacea sp
Correspondence: Leoni V Bonamin, Faculty of Health Sciences of São Paulo, FACIS, Instituto Brasileiro de Estudos Homeopáticos, IBEHE, Rua Bartolomeu de Gusmão, 86. 04111-020, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
Patients’ assessments of the effectiveness of homeopathic care in Norway: A prospective observational multicentre outcome study
and R Lüdtke2 1
Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway
2Karl und Veronica Carstens-Stiftung, Essen, Germany
Received 5 July 2004; revised 9 September 2004; accepted 8 November 2004. Available online 11 January 2005.
Objective: To evaluate the patient reported effects of homeopathic care 6 months after first consultations.
Methods: Prospective uncontrolled observational multicentre outcome study. All patients visiting 80 homeopaths all over Norway for the first time in eight different time periods from 1996 to 1998 were approached. Patients wrote down their main complaint and scored its impact on daily living on a 100mm Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) at the first consultation. Six months later they were asked to score again. The homeopaths recorded treatments given for up to two follow-up consultations.
Main outcome measure: Predefined as a reduction of at least 10mm in the VAS score between the first consultation and follow-up.
Result: Patients 1097 were recruited, 654 completed the follow-up questionnaire. The main complaint improved by at least 10mm on the VAS for 71% (95% confidence interval 67–74%) of patients. The average reduction was 32mm (95% CI 30–35mm). Fifty-one per cent (95% CI 48–55%) of the patients had an improvement in their general well being of more than 10mm. The mean reduction in the whole group was 14mm (95% CI 12–16mm). The proportion of patients using conventional medication reduced from 39% to 16%. Regression analysis showed that lower age and higher baseline score were predictors of better outcome.
Conclusion: In this study, seven out of ten patients visiting a Norwegian homeopath reported a meaningful improvement in their main complaint 6 months after the initial consultation.
Keywords: homeopathy; Norway; effectiveness; everyday treatment; outcome study
Correspondence: Aslak Steinsbekk, Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), MTFS, N-7489 Trondheim, Norway.
Histopathological and immunophenotyping studies on normal and sarcoma 180-bearing mice treated with a complex homeopathic medication
D.Y.O. Sato1, R. Wal2, C.C. de Oliveira3, R.I.I. Cattaneo2, M. Malvezzi2, J. Gabardo4 and D. de F Buchi3,
1Universidade do Vale do Itajaí
2Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal do Paraná
3Departamento de Biologia Celular do Setor de Ciências Biológicas da Universidade Federal do Paraná, Centro Politécnico, Jardim das Américas, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil
4Departamento de Genética da Universidade Federal do Paraná, Brazil
Received 29 June 2004; revised 27 September 2004; accepted 25 October 2004. Available online 11 January 2005.
Canova is a homeopathic complex medicine, used as an immune modulator. We studied its effects in normal and sarcoma 180-bearing mice. Three control groups were also evaluated. The mice were examined at daily intervals and the tumours observed histologically. Peripheral blood was analysed by flow cytometry.
A delay in the development, and a reduction in size of the tumours, and increased infiltration by lymphoid cells, granulation tissue, and fibrosis surrounding the tumour were observed with active treatment compared to control. All animals from the treated group survived, 30% of control groups died. In 30% of treated animals, a total regression of the tumour was confirmed using light microscopy, no regression was found in the control groups. Treatment with Canova increased total numbers of leukocytes and lymphocytes. Among lymphocytes, TCD4, increased in normal-treated group and B and NK cells in S180-treated groups. The results reflect enhanced immune response of the host after treatment with Canova.
Keywords: immunotherapy; sarcoma 180; immunophenotyping; Canova
Correspondence: Dorly de F Buchi, UFPR, Departamento de Biologia Celular, Centro Politécnico, SCB, sala 215, CEP 81531-980, Jardim das Américas, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.
Evaluation of a homeopathic complex in the clinical management of udder diseases of riverine buffaloes
JP Varshney and Ram Naresh
1 Division of Medicine, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh State, India
Received 27 July 2003; revised 23 October 2003; accepted 5 November 2003.; Available online 9 January 2004.
We report an uncontrolled observational study of the treatment of udder diseases of buffalo, using a homeopathic complex medicine. Mastitis is an economically important disease of buffaloes. In India economic losses due to mastitis are estimated at US$526 million annually. Conventional veterinary treatment relies on costly antibiotics; cure rate is only 60% in field conditions with a problem of milk residues. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of a homeopathic complex in the management of clinical udder health problems of riverine buffaloes. Cases of subclinical mastitis were excluded from the study. A total of 102 mastitic quarters (fibrosed—40, nonfibrosed—62) and five cases each of blood in milk and udder oedema in lactating buffaloes were treated with a homeopathic complex consisting of Phytolacca 200c, Calcarea fluorica 200c, Silicea 30c, Belladona 30c, Bryonia 30c, Arnica 30c, Conium 30c and Ipecacuanha 30c. The diagnosis of udder diseases and recovery criterion was based on physical examination of udder and milk and CMT/WST score. Bacteriological analysis and somatic cell count were not performed.
Treatment was 80 and 96.72% effective in cases of fibrotic mastitis and nonfibrosed mastitis respectively. Recovery period was 21–42 days (fibrosed) and 4–15 days (nonfibrosed). Udder oedema and blood in milk responded favourably in 2–5 days. Cost of treatment was US$ 0.07 per day. The homeopathic complex medicine may be effective and economical in the management of udder health problems of buffaloes. Definitive conclusions are premature due to the limited number of observations and lack of control group.
Author Keywords: buffalo; homeopathy; mastitis; udder oedema complex
Corresponding author. Correspondence: JP Varshney, Principal Scientist, Division of Medicine, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243122, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh State, India
An observational study of patients receiving homeopathic treatment
M. Van Wassenhoven1 and G. Ives
1 Unio Homœopathica Belgica, 132 chaussée de Bruxelles, 1190, Brussels, Belgium;
2 Priority Research Ltd, Sheffield Science Park, Arundel Street, Sheffield, UK
Received 21 October 2003; revised 24 October 2003; accepted 24 November 2003.; Available online 9 January 2004.
Background. Observational studies have recently contributed useful information to the debate about the utility of homeopathic treatment in everyday practice.
Aim. To gather data about routine homeopathic general practice.
Setting. Eighty general medical practices in Belgium where physicians were members of the Unio Homoeopathica Belgica.
Methods. All patients and their physicians visiting the practices on a specified day completed a questionnaire.
Results. A total of 782 patients presented with diseases of all major organ systems which were of sufficient severity to interfere with daily living in 78% of cases. Compared to previous conventional treatment, patients reported that consultations were much longer but costed less. One or more conventional drug treatments were discontinued in over half (52%) of the patients: CNS (including psychotropic) drugs (21%), drugs for respiratory conditions (16%) and antibiotics (16%). Conventional drugs were prescribed to about a quarter of patients (27%), mostly antibiotics and cardiovascular medication. The antibiotics were almost exclusively (95%) used to treat respiratory infections. Prescription costs (including conventional medicines) were one-third of the general practice average. Patients’ satisfaction with their homeopathic treatment was very high (95% fairly or very satisfied), and ratings of their previous treatment was much lower (20%). The great majority (89%) said that homeopathy had improved their physical condition; 8.5% said that it had made no difference, 2.4% said that homeopathy had worsened their condition. Physicians’ ratings of improvement were similar. Previous conventional treatment had improved 13% of patients, made no difference to 32%, and had worsened the condition of over half (55%). A similar pattern was seen for psychological symptoms.
Conclusions: Patients were very satisfied with their homeopathic treatment, both they and their physicians recorded significant improvement. Costs of homeopathic treatment were significantly lower than conventional treatment, and many previously prescribed drugs were discontinued.
Author Keywords: homeopathy; general practice; Belgium; patient satisfaction; costs; effectiveness
Corresponding author. Correspondence: G Ives, Priority Research Ltd, Sheffield Science Park, Arundel Street, Sheffield S1 2NS, UK.
Antibiotics and the development of resistant microorganisms. Can homeopathy be an alternative?
Nordbogaten 10, Stavanger, Norway
Received 20 August 2002; revised 27 November 2002; accepted 20 January 2003.; Available online 6 May 2003.
Antibiotic resistance is a global public health problem. Once confined primarily to hospitals it is now increasingly common in primary care. The prevalence of resistant bacteria is rising, and organisms resistant to almost all antibiotics have been identified. The main causes are indiscriminate prescribing and the use of antibiotics in animal feeds and other agricultural applications. Policies to restrict use of antibiotics have had limited success. Homeopathy may have a role to play in combating the development of antibiotic resistance. Clinical research suggests that homeopathy is effective in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections in children, a frequent cause of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing. The EU recommends the use of homeopathy in organic animal husbandry, and it is used by significant numbers of farmers. At present there is little data on the effectiveness of homeopathy in this setting. Further research should be done.
Author Keywords: homeopathy; antibiotics; resistant microorganisms; infectious diseases; recurring respiratory tract infections
Corresponding author. Correspondence: P Viksveen, Nordbogaten 10, 4006 , Stavanger, , Norway