Referencer og forskning
Abrahamson L (1931) Subacute bacterial endocarditic following removal of septic foci. British Medical Journal 2, 8±9.
Ainscow DAP, Denham RA (1984) The risk of haematogenous infection in total joint replacements. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 66-B, 580±2.
Aldous JA, Powell GL, Stensaas SS (1987) Brain abscess of odontogenic origin: report of a case. Journal of the American Dental Association 115, 861±3.
Alt HL, Barker MH (1930) Fever of unknown origin. Journal of the American Medical Association 94, 1457±61.
Aranki A, Freter R (1972) Use of anaerobic glove boxes for the cultivation of strictly anaerobic bacteria. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 25, 1329±34.
Arnett JH, Ennis LM (1933) Dental infection and systemic disease. American Journal of the Medical Sciences 185, 777± 87.
Arneberg P, Bjertness E, Storhaug K, Glennas A, Bjerkhoel F (1992) Remaining teeth, oral dryness and dental health habits in middle-aged Norwegian rheumatoid arthritis patients. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 20, 292±6.
Auerbach MB (1953) Antibiotics vs. instrumentation in endodontics. New York State Dental Journal 19, 225±8. Baltch AL, Pressman HL, Hammer MC, Sutphen NC, Smith RP, Shayegani M (1982) Bacteremia following dental extractions in patients with and without penicillin
prophylaxis. The American Journal of the Medical Sciences 283, 129±40.
Bandt CL, Korn NA, Schaffer EM (1964) Bacteremias from ultrasonic and hand instrumentation. Journal of Periodontology 35, 214±23.
Barnes GW, Langeland K (1966) Antibody formation in primates following introduction of antigens into the root canal. Journal of Dental Research 45, 1111±4.
Barrington FJ, Wright HD (1930) Bacteremia following operations on the urethra. Journal of Pathology and Bacteriology 33, 871±88.
Baumgartner JC, Heggers JP, Harrison JW (1976) The incidence of bacteremias related to endodontic procedures I. Non surgical endodontics. Journal of Endodontics 2, 135±40.
Baumgartner JC, Heggers JP, Harrison JW (1977) Incidence of bacteremias related to endodontic procedures II. Surgical endodontics. Journal of Endodontics 3, 399±402.
Baumgartner JC, Falkler WA (1991) Bacteria in the apical 5 mm of infected root canals. Journal of Endodontics 17, 380±3.
Baumgartner JC, Watkins BJ (1994) Prevalence of blackpigmented bacteria associated with root canal infections. Journal of Endodontics 20, 191 (abstract).
Beck JD, Garcia R, Heiss G, Vokonas P, Offenbacher S (1996). Periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease. Journal of Periodontology 67, 1123±37.
Beck JD, Offenbacher S (1998) Oral health and systemic disease: Periodontitis and cardiovascular disease. Journal of Dental Education 62, 859±70.
Beck JD, Offenbacher S, Williams R, Gibbs P, Garcia R (1998). Periodontitis: a risk factor for coronary heart disease? Annals of Periodontology 3, 127±41.
Bedell AJ (1925) The relation of eyes and teeth. Dental Cosmos 67, 990±7.
Beechen II, Laston DJ, Garbarino VE (1956) Transitory bacteremia as related to the operation of vital pulpotomy. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine and Oral Pathology 9, 902±5. International Endodontic Journal, 33, 1±18, 2000 q 2000 Blackwell Science Ltd Review: Root canal treatment Murray & Saunders 10
Bender IB, Pressman RS (1945) Factors in dental bacteremia. Journal of the American Dental Association 32, 836±53.
Bender IB, Pressman RS, Tashman S (1958) Comparative effects of local and systemic antibiotic therapy in the prevention of ostextraction bacteremia. Journal of the American Dental Association 57, 54±66.
Bender IB, Seltzer S, Yermish M (1960) The incidence of bacteremia in endodontic manipulation. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine and Oral Pathology 13, 353±60.
Bender IB, Seltzer S, Meloff G, Pressman RS (1961) Conditions affecting sensitivity of techniques for detection of bacteremia. Journal of Dental Research 40, 951±9.
Bender IB, Seltzer S, Tashman S, Meloff G (1963) Dental procedures in patients with rheumatic heart disease. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine and Oral Pathology 16, 466±73.
Bender IB, Seltzer S, Turkenkopf S (1964) To culture or not to culture? Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine and Oral Pathology 18, 527±40.
Bender IB, Naidorf IJ, Garvey GJ (1984) Bacterial endocarditic: a consideration for physician and dentist. Journal of the American Dental Association 109, 415±20.
Bender IB, Montgomery S (1986) Non-surgical endodontic procedures for the patient at risk for infective endocarditic and other systemic disorders. Journal of Endodontics 12, 400±7.
Berg JO, Nord CE (1973) A method for isolation of anaerobic bacteria from endodontic specimens. Scandinavian Journal of Dental Research 81, 163±6.
Bergenholtz G (1974) Microorganisms from necrotic pulp of traumatized teeth. Odontologisk Revy 25, 347±58.
Bernhardt H, Hench PS (1931) Bacteriology of the blood in chronic infectious arthritis. Journal of Infectious Diseases 49, 489±93.
Berry E, Silver J (1976) Pyorrhoea as a cause of pyrexia. British Medical Journal 2, 1289±90.
Bieniek KW, Riedel HH (1993) Bacterial foci in the teeth, oral cavity and jaw secondary effects (remote action) of bacterial
colonies with respect to bacteriospermia and subfertility in males. Andrologia 25, 159±62.
Billings F (1912) Chronic focal infections and their etiologic relations to arthritis and nephritis. Archives of Internal Medicine 9, 484±98.
Billings F (1913) Chronic focal infection as a causative factor in chronic arthritis. Journal of the American Medical Association 61, 819±22.
Billings F (1914) Focal infection. Journal of the American Medical Association 63, 899±903.
Birtles RJ (1993) An approach to identification of unculturable organisms and its use to characterise the agents of cat scratch disease and bacillary angiomatosis. PHLS Microbiology Digest 11, 25±9.
Blair GS, Chalmers IM (1976) The dental status of a chronically disabled section of the community: a study of 139 patients suffering from rheumatic diseases. Journal of the Dental Association of South Africa 31, 329±36.
Bobetsis YA, Barros SP, Offenbacher S (2006) Exploring the relationship between periodontal disease and pregnancy complications. J Am Dent Assoc 137: 7s–13s
Borowsky SA, Hasse A, Wiedlin R, Lott E (1979) Dental infection in a cirrhotic patient. Gastroenterology 76, 836±9.
Boyd DL, Katz V, Fertik GS, Offenbacher S (1994) Relationship between periodontal disease status and birth outcome. Journal of Dental Research 73, 394 (abstract).
Brisman DL, Brismann AS, Moses MS (2001) Adult Dental Department, Bellevue Hospital Medical Center, New York City, USA. Implant failures associated with asymptomatic endodontically treated teeth. Journal of the American Dental Association Vol 132, Nr. 2, pp. 191-195.
British Dental Association (1996) Endodontic treatment and general health. April, Factfile.
Brown LR, Rudolph CE (1957) Isolation and identification of micro-organisms from unexposed canals of pulp involved teeth. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine and Oral Pathology 10, 1094±9.
Burket LW, Burn CG (1937) Bacteremias following dental extraction. Demonstration of source of bacteria by means of a nonpathogen (Serratia marcescens). Journal of Dental Research 16, 521±30.
Bystrom A, Sundqvist G (1981) Bacteriologic evaluation of the efficacy of mechanical root canal instrumentation in endodontic therapy. Scandinavian Journal of Dental Research 89, 321±8.
Bystrom A, Happonen RP, Sjogren U, Sundqvist G (1987) Healing of periapical lesions of pulpless teeth after endodontic treatment with controlled asepsis. Endodontics and Dental Traumatology 3, 58±63.
Caplan DJ, Chasen JB, Krall EA, Cal J, Kang S, Garcia RI, & al (2006) Lesions of endodontic origin and risk of coronary heart disease. J Dent Res 85: 996–1000.
Carlsson J, Frolander F, Sundqvist G (1977) Oxygen tolerance of anaerobic bacteria isolated from necrotic dental pulps. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 35, 139±49.
Carlsson J, Sundqvist G (1980) Evaluation of methods of transport and cultivation of bacterial specimens from infected dental root canals. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine and Oral Pathology 49, 451±4.
Cates JE, Christie RV (1951) Subacute bacterial endocarditic: a review of 442 patients treated in 14 centres appointed by the penicillin trials committee of the Medical Research Council. Quarterly Journal of Medicine 20, 93±130.
Cecil RL, Archer BH (1927) Chronic infectious arthritis; an analysis of 200 cases. American Journal of the Medical Sciences 173, 258±70.
Cecil RL, Nicholls EE, Stainsby WJ (1929) The bacteriology of the blood and joints in chronic infectious arthritis. Archives of Internal Medicine 43, 571±605.
Cecil RL, Angevine MD (1938) Clinical and experimental observations on focal infection with an analysis of 200 cases of rheumatoid arthritis. Annals of Internal Medicine 12, 577±84.
Chalmers IM, Blair GS (1992) Rheumatoid arthritis and its implications in temporomandibular diseases. Oral Medicine 10, 59±69.
Churton MC, Greer ND (1980) Intracranial abscess secondary to dental infection. New Zealand Dental Journal 76, 58±60.
Cobe H (1954) Transitory bacteremia. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine and Oral Pathology 7, 609±15.
Coffin F, Thompson REM (1956) Factors influencing bacteremia following dental extraction. Lancet 2, 654±6.
Crawford JJ, Shankle RJ (1961) Application of newer methods to study the importance of root canal and oral microbiota q 2000 Blackwell Science Ltd International Endodontic Journal, 33, 1±18, 2000 Murray & Saunders Review: Root canal treatment11 in endodontics. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine and Oral Pathology 14, 1109±23.
Crawford JJ, Sconyers JR, Moriarty JD, King RC, West JF (1974) Bacteremia after tooth extractions studied with the aid of pre-reduced anaerobically sterilized culture media. Applied Microbiology 27, 927±32.
Cvek M, Nord CE, Hollender L (1976) Antimicrobial effect of root canal debridement in teeth with immature root. Odontologisk Revy 27, 1±10.
Dahlen G, Fabricius L, Holm SE, Moller JR (1982) Circulating antibodies after experimental chronic infection in the root canal of teeth in monkeys. Scandanavian Journal of Dental Research 90, 338±44.
Dahlen G, Pipattanagovit P, Rosling B, Moller A (1993) A comparison of two transport media for saliva and subgingival samples. Oral Microbiology and Immunology 8, 375±82.
Daland J (1916) Focal sepsis. New York Medical Journal 103, 1159±60.
Davidson LS, Duthie JJR, Sugar M (1949) Focal infection in rheumatoid arthritis: a comparison of the incidence of foci of infections in the upper respiratory tract in one hundred cases of rheumatoid arthritis and one hundred controls. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 8, 205±8.
Davis DJ (1912) Bacteriological and experimental observations on focal infection. Archives of Internal Medicine 9, 505±14.
Dawson M, Olmstead M, Boots RH (1932) Bacteriologic investigations on the blood, synovial fluid and subcutaneous nodules in rheumatoid (chronic infectious) arthritis. Archives of Internal Medicine 49, 173±80.
Debelian GJ, Olsen I, Tronstad L (1992) Profiling of Propionibacterium acnes recovered from root canal and blood during and after endodontic treatment. Endodontics and Dental Traumatology 8, 248±54.
Debelian GJ, Olsen I, Tronstad L (1995) Bacteremia in conjunction with endodontic therapy. Endodontics and Dental Traumatology 11, 142±9.
Debelian GJ, Olsen I, Tronstad L (1994). Systemic diseases caused by oral microorganisms. Endod Dent Traumatol 10: 57–65.
Debelian GJ, Olsen I, Tronstad L (1996) Electrophoresis of whole cell soluble proteins of micro-organisms isolated from bacteremias in endodontic therapy. European Journal of Oral Science 104, 540±6.
Debelian GJ, Eribe ER, Olsen I, Tronstad L (1997) Ribotyping of bacteria from root canal and blood of patients receiving endodontic herapy. Anaerobe 3, 237±43.
Debelian GJ, Olsen I, Tronstad L (1998) Anaerobic bacteremia and fungemia in patients undergoing endodontic therapy: an overview. Annals of Periodontology 3, 281±7.
DeLeo AA, Schoenknecht FD, Anderson MW, Peterson JC (1974) The incidence of bacteremia following oral prophylaxis on pediatric atients. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine and Oral Pathology 37, 36±45.
Demmer RT, Desvarieux M (2006) Periodontal infections and cardiovascular disease. The heart of the matter. J Am Dent Assoc 137: 14s–9s.
Destefano F, Anda RF, Kahn HS, Williamson DF, Russell CM (1993) Dental disease and risk of coronary heart disease and mortality. British Medical Journal 306, 688±91.
Diener J, Schwartz SM, Shelanski M, Steinberg G (1964) Bacteremia and oral sepsis with particular reference to the possible reduction of systemic disease originating from the oral cavity. Journal of Periodontology 35, 236±41.
Donaldson KW (1995) Rheumatoid diseases and the temporomandibular joint: a review. Journal of Craniomandibular Practice 13, 264±9.
Drecka-Kuzan K (1971) Comparative survey on the incidence of dental caries in children with rheumatic fever and rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatologia 9, 125±33.
Dussault G, Sheiham A (1982) Medical theories and professional development -The theory of focal sepsis and dentistry in early wentieth Century Britain. Social Sciences and Medicine 16, 1405±12.
Easlick K (1951) An evaluation of the effect of dental foci of infection on health. Journal of the American Dental Association 42, 615±30.
Egbert GW, Simmons AK, Graham LL (1987) Toxic shock syndrome: odontogenic origin. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine and Oral Pathology 63, 167±71.
Eggink CO (1982) The value of the bacteriological culture in endodontics.1.The influence of infection during and after treatment. International Endodontic Journal 15, 79±86.
Ehrmann EH (1977) Focal infection The endodontic point of view. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine and Oral Pathology 44, 628±34.
Eisenbud L (1962) Subacute bacterial endocarditic precipitated by non surgical dental procedures. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine and Oral Pathology 15, 624±7.
Eklund SA, Burt BA (1994) Risk factors for total tooth loss in the United States, longitudinal analysis of national data. Journal of Public Health Dentistry 54, 5±14.
Elliot SD (1939a) Bacteraemia following tonsillectomy. Lancet 2, 589±92.
Elliot SD (1939b) Bacteremia and oral sepsis. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 32, 747±55.
Engstrom B, Frostell G (1961) Bacteriological studies of the non vital pulp in cases with intact pulp cavities. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 19, 23±39.
Engstrom B (1964) The significance of enterococci in root canal treatment. Odontologisk Revy 15, 87±107.
Ensign DC (1945) Oral focal infection: its status today, with particular reference to arthritis. Journal of Oral Surgery 3, 89±101.
Everett ED, Hirschmann JV (1977) Transient bacteremia and endocarditic prophylaxis, a review. Medicine 56, 61±77.
Faillo PS (1942) Blood findings on twenty patients before and after extraction of teeth. Journal of Dental Research 21, 19±26.
Fardy CH, Findlay G, Owen G, Shortland G (1999) Department of Child Health, University of Wales College of Medicine, Cardiff. “Toxic shock syndrome secondary to a dental abscess.” International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Vol 28, Nr. 1, pp. 60-61 Feldman L, Trace IM (1938) Subacute bacterial endocarditic following the removal of teeth or tonsils. Annals of Internal Medicine 11, 2124±32.
Ford PJ, Yamazaki K, Seymour GJ (2007) Cardiovascular and oral disease interactions: what is the evidence? Prim Dent Care 14: 59–66.
Freese AS (1985) Everybody's disease: arthritis. TIC 44, 1±4.
Freyberg RH (1946) Focal infection in relation to rheumatic diseases: a critical appraisal. Journal of the American Dental Association 33, 1101±8. International Endodontic Journal, 33, 1±18, 2000 q 2000 Blackwell Science Ltd Review: Root canal treatment Murray & Saunders
Friedlander AH, Marshall CE (1994) Pathogenesis and prevention of native valve infective endocarditic in elderly dental patients. Drugs and Ageing 4, 325±30.
Fulghum RS, Wiggins CB, Mullaney TP (1973) Pilot study for detecting obligate anaerobic bacteria in necrotic dental pulps. Journal of Dental Research 52, 637.
Gallia LJ, Johnson JT (1981) Cervical necrotising fasciitis. Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery 89, 935.
Gargiulo AV, Robinson J, Toto PD, Gargiulo AW (1982) Identification of rheumatoid factor in periodontal disease. Journal of eriodontology 53, 568±77.
Geiger AJ (1942) Relation of fatal subacute bacterial endocarditic to tooth extraction. Journal of the American Dental Association 29, 1023±5.
Genco R, Chadda S, Grossi S (1997) Periodontal disease as a predictor of cardiovascular disease. Journal of Dental Research 76, 408 (abstract).
Gilmer TL (1916) A clinical and experimental study of chronic alveolar abscess in relation to systemic disorders. Dental Cosmos 58, 1357±62.
Goadby KW (1911) The association of disease of the mouth with rheumatoid arthritis and certain other forms of rheumatism. Lancet 1, 639±49.
Goldberg MH (1968) Gram-negative bacteremia after dental extraction. Journal of Oral Surgery 26, 180±1.
Gomes BPFA, Lilley JD, Drucker DB (1996) Associations of endodontic symptoms and signs with particular combinations of specific bacteria. International Endodontic Journal 29, 69±75.
Goodman AD (1977) Isolation of anaerobic bacteria from the root canal systems of necrotic teeth by the use of a transport solution. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine and Oral Pathology 43, 766±70.
Gordon MA, Goldberg NB, Goldberg AF (1988) Fevers of unknown origin in patients requiring mechanical ventilation: an odontogenic problem? Special Care in Dentistry 8, 135±7.
Gordon SC, Barasch A, Foong WC, Elgeneidy AK, Safford MM (2005) Does dental disease hurt your heart? J Can Dent Assoc 71: 93–5.
Goymerac B, Woollard G (2004) Focal infection: a new perspective on an old theory. Gen Dent 52: 356–61.
Grau AJ, Buggle F, Ziegler C et al. (1997) Association between acute cerebrovascular ischaemia and chronic and recurrent infection. Stroke 28, 1724±9.
Griffee MB, Patterson SS, Miller CH, Kafrawy AH, Newton CW (1980) The relationship of Bacteroides melaninogenicus to symptoms associated with pulpal necrosis. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine and Oral Pathology 50, 457±61.
Griffee MB, Heggers JP, Harrison JW (1981) Comparison of bacterial growth in an improperly but commonly used medium versus reduced thioglycolate with the use of an anaerobic sampling technique. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine and Oral Pathology 52, 433±6.
Grossman LI (1945) Evaluation of antibiotic agents for root canal treatment. New York Journal of Dentistry 15, 233±45.
Grossman LG (1971) Endodontics: Then and now. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine and Oral Pathology 32, 254±9.
Guntheroth WG (1984) How important are dental procedures as a cause of infective endocarditic? American Journal of Cardiology 54, 797±801.
Haden RL (1925) The pulpless tooth from a bacteriologic and experimental standpoint. Journal of the American Dental Association 12, 918±32.
Hamlyn JF (1978) Acute hemiplegia in childhood following a dental abscess. British Journal of Oral Surgery 16, 151±5.
Hartzell TB, Henrici AT (1916) The dental path: Its importance as an avenue to infection. Surgery, Gynaecology and Obstetrics 22, 18±27.
Hashioka K, Yamasaki M, Nakane A, Horiba N, Nakamura H (1992) The relationship between clinical symptoms and anaerobic bacteria from infected root canals. Journal of Endodontics 18, 558±61.
Hedstrom SA, Nord CE, Ursing B (1980) Chronic meningitis in patients with dental infection. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 12, 117±21.
Helminen-Pakkala E (1972) Observations on tooth mobility in rheumatoid arthritis. Proceedings of the Finnish Dental Society 68, 300±6.
Hendler BH, Quinn PD (1978) Fatal mediastinitis secondary to odontogenic infection. Journal of Oral Surgery 36, 308±10.
Henig EF, Derschowitz T, Shalit M, Toledo E (1978) Brain abscess following dental infection. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine and Oral Pathology 45, 955±8.
Henrici A, Hartzell TB (1919) The bacteriology of vital pulps. Journal of Dental Research 1, 419±22.
Hockett RN, Loesche WJ, Sodeman TM (1977) Bacteremia in asymptomatic human subjects. Archives of Oral Biology 22, 91±8.
Hollin SA, Hayashi H, Gross SW (1967) Intracranial abscesses of odontogenic origin. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine and Oral Pathology 23, 277±93.
Holman WL (1928) Focal infection and elective localization. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine 5, 68±136.
Hopkins JA (1939) Streptococcus viridans: bacteremia following extraction of the teeth. Journal of the American Dental Association 26, 2002±8.
Howe PR (1919) To what degree are oral pathological conditions responsible for systemic disease? Dental Cosmos 61, 33±40.
Huebner GR, Groat D (1986) The role of dental disease in fever of unknown origin. Postgraduate Medicine 79, 275±8.
Huggins HA, Levy TE (1999) ISBN 1-57174-117-8. Uninformed Consent. The hidden dangers in dental care. Hampton Roads Publishing Company http://www.hrpub.com/.
Hughes RA (1994) Focal infection revisited. British Journal of Rheumatology 33, 370±7.
Hunter W (1900) Oral sepsis as a cause of disease. British Medical Journal 2, 215±6.
Hunter W (1921) The coming of age of oral sepsis. British Medical Journal I, 859.
Ingham HR, Kalbag RM, Tharagonnet D, High AS, Sengupta RP, Selkon JB (1978) Abscesses of the frontal lobe of the
brain secondary to covert dental sepsis. Lancet 2, 497±9.
Ingle JI, Zeldow BJ (1958) An evaluation of mechanical instrumentation and the negative culture in endodontic therapy. Journal of the American Dental Association 57, 471.
International Academy of Oral Medicine And Toxicology (1998) (Correspondence Information leaflet). q 2000 Blackwell Science Ltd International Endodontic Journal, 33, 1±18, 2000 Murray & Saunders Review: Root canal treatment.
Jackson MS, Bagg J, Gupta MN, Sturrock RD (1999) Oral carriage of Staphylococci in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology 38, 572±5.
Jacobsen PL, Murray W (1980) Prophylactic coverage of dental patients with artificial joints. A retrospective analysis of thirty three infections in hip prosthesis. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine and Oral Pathology 50, 130±3.
Jones NW, Newsom SJ (1931) Experimentally produced focal infection in relation to cardiac structure. Archives of Pathology 13, 392±414.
Jones JA, Miller DR, Wehler CJ, Rich SE, Krall-Kaye EA, Christiansen CL, & al (2007) Does periodontal care improve glycemic control? The department of veterans affairs dental diabetes study. J Clin Periodontol 34: 46–52.
Joshipura KJ, Rimm EB, Douglass CW, Trichopoulos D, Ascherio A, Willett WC (1996) Poor oral health and coronary heart disease. Journal of Dental Research 75, 1631±6.
Kakehashi S, Stanley H, Fitzgerald R (1965) The effects of surgical exposures of dental pulps in germ-free and conventional laboratory rats. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine and Oral Pathology 20, 340±9.
Kallenberg A, Wenneberg B, Carlsson GE, Ahlmen M (1997) Reported symptoms from the masticatory system and general well being in rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation 24, 342±9.
Kantz WE, Henry CA (1974) Isolation and classification of anaerobic bacteria from intact pulp chambers of non vital teeth in man. Archives of Oral Biology 19, 91±5.
Kasser UR, Gleissner C, Dehne F, Michell A, Willerhausen-Zonnichen B, Bolten WW (1997) Risk for periodontal disease in patients with longstanding rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism 40, 2248±51.
Katz J, Weinstein E, Barak S, Livneh A (1992) Dental disease in the differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin. Annals of Dentistry 51, 3±5.
Kaye D (1986) Prophylaxis for infective endocarditic: an update. Annals of Internal Medicine 104, 419±23.
Kennedy DR, Hamilton TR, Syverton JT (1957) Effects on monkeys of introduction of haemolytic Streptococci into root canals. Journal of Dental Research 36, 496±506.
Keudell K, Conte M, Fujimoto L, Ernest M, Berry H (1976) Micro-organisms isolated from pulp chambers. Journal of Endodontics 2, 146±8.
Khairat O (1966) The non-aerobes of post-extraction bacteremia. Journal of Dental Research 45, 1191±7.
Kirkevang L-L, Hörsted-Bindslev P, Ørstavik D, Wenzel A (2002) Århus University, Department of Odontology. Frequency and distribution of endodontically treated teeth and apical periodontitis in an urban Danish population. Int Endodont J 34: 198-205.
Kirkevang L-L, Wenzel A (2003) Århus University, Department of Odontology. Risk indicators for apical periodontitis. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 31: 59-67.
Klotz MD, Gerstein H, Bahn AN (1965) Bacteremia after topical use of prednisilone in infected pulps. Journal of the American Dental Association 71, 871±5.
Knapp AA (1952) Healing of eye disease by cure of oral foci. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine and Oral Pathology 5, 799±808.
Kralovic SM, Melin-Aldana H, Smith KK, Linnemann CC Jr (1995) Staphylococcus lugdumensis endocarditic after tooth extraction. Clinical Infectious Diseases 20, 715±6.
Kulacz R, Levy TE (2002) ISBN 1-4010-4895-1 The roots of disease, connecting Dentistry & Medicine. Xlibris Corporation ttp://www.xlibris.com/.
Lake R (1919) Aural bacteremia. Journal of Laryngology, Rhinology and Otology 34, 110±3.
Laporte DM, Waldman BJ, Mont MA, Hungerford DS (1999) Infections associated with dental procedures in total hip replacement. British Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 81, 56±9.
Larheim TA, Storhaug K, Tveito L (1983) Temporomandibular joint involvement and dental occlusion in a group of adults with rheumatoid arthritis. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 41, 301±9.
Latronica RJ, Shukes R (1973) Septic emboli and pulmonary abscess secondary to odontogenic infection. Journal of Oral Surgery 31, 844±7.
Lavelle CLB (1996) Is antibiotic prophylaxis required for endodontic treatment? Endodontics and Dental Traumatology 12, 209±14.
Lazansky JP, Robinson L, Rodofsky L (1949) Factors influencing the incidence of bacteremias following surgical procedures in the oral cavity. Journal of Dental Research 28, 533±43.
Lee GTR (1984) Septicaemia as a complication of endodontic treatment. Journal of Dentistry 12, 241±2.
Lens JW, Beersten W (1988) Injection of an antigen into the gingivae and its effect on an experimentally induced inflammation in the knee joint of the mouse. Journal of Periodontal Research 23, 1±6.
Leuckfeld I, Oregon-Whittle MV, Lund MB, Geiran O, Bjørtuft Ø, Olsen I (2008) Severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: association with marginal bone loss in periodontitis. Resp Med 102: 488–94.
Levinson SL, Barondess JA (1979) Occult dental infection as cause of fever of obscure origin. American Journal of Medicine 66, 463±7.
Lindqvist C, Slatis P (1985) Dental bacteremia a neglected cause of arthroplasty infections? Acta Orthopedica Scandinavica 56, 506±8.
Little JW (1983) The need for antibiotic coverage for dental treatment of patients with joint replacements. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine and Oral Pathology 55, 20±3.
Li X, Kolltveit KM, Tronstad L, Olsen I (2000) Systemic diseases caused by oral infection. Clin Microbiol Re 13: 447–58.
Loesche WJ, Lopatin DE, Stoll J, Van Poperin N, Hujoel P (1992) Comparison of various detection methods for periodontopathic bacteria: can culture be considered the primary reference standard? Journal of Clinical Microbiology 30, 418±26.
Loesche WJ (1997) Association of the oral flora with important medical diseases. Current Opinion in Periodontology 4, 21±8.
Loesche WJ, Schork A, Terpenning MS, Chen YM, Kerr C, Dominguez BL (1998) The relationship between dental disease and cerebrovascular accident in elderly United States veterans. Annals of Periodontology 3, 161±74.
MacDonald JB, Hare GC, Wood AWS (1957) The bacteriologic status of the pulp chambers in intact teeth found to be non vital following trauma. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine and Oral Pathology 10, 318±22.
Madsen KL (1974) Effect of chlorhexidene mouthrinse and periodontal treatment upon bacteremia produced by oral hygiene procedures. Scandinavian Journal of Dental Research 82, 1±7.
Malmstrom M (1975) Immunoglobulin classes IgG, IgM, IgA and complement component C3 in dental periapical lesions of patients with rheumatoid disease. Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology 4, 57±64.
Malmstrom M, Calonius PEB (1975) Teeth loss and the inflammation of teeth supporting tissues in rheumatoid disease. Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology 4, 49±55. International Endodontic Journal, 33, 1±18, 2000 q 2000 Blackwell Science Ltd Review: Root canal treatment Murray & Saunders.
Malmstrom M, Jokinen EJ (1975) Free rheumatoid factor in dental periapical lesions and gingivae of patients with rheumatoid disease. Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology 4, 121±4.
Malmstrom M, Natvig JB (1975) IgG rheumatoid factor in dental periapical lesions of patients with rheumatoid disease. Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology 4, 177±85.
Marks PV, Patel KS, Mee EW (1988) Multiple brain abscesses secondary to dental caries and severe periodontal disease. British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 26, 244±7.
Marques da Silva (2006) Identification and characterization of bacteria from systemic diseases with emphasis on oral bacteria. [PhD thesis] Oslo: Faculty of Dentistry, University of Oslo.
Marshall DA, Moussa KM, Sanders PA (1993) Streptococcal arthritis and erysipelas complicating dental extraction. British Journal of Rheumatology 32, 83±4.
Mattila KJ (1993) Dental infections as a risk factor for acute myocardial infarction. European Heart Journal 14 (Suppl. K), 51±3.
Mattila KJ, Nieminen MS, Valtonen VV et al. (1989) Association between dental health and acute myocardial infarction. British Medical Journal 298, 779±82.
Mattila KJ, Valle MS, Nieminen MS, Valtonen V, Hietaniemi K (1993) Dental infections and coronary atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis 103, 205±11.
Mattila KJ, Valtonen V, Nieminen MS, Huttenen JK (1995) Dental infection and the risk of new coronary events: prospective study of patients with documented coronary artery disease. Clinical Infectious Diseases 20, 588±92.
Matlashenko LA (1968) The influence of chronic odontogenous infection on the blood serum proteinogram in patients with rheumatism. Stomatologia 47, 8±11.
Matsumiya S, Kitamura M (1960) Histo-pathological and histo-bacteriological studies of the relation between the condition of terilisation of the interior of the root canal and the healing process of periapical tissues in experimentally infected root canal treatment. Bulletin of Tokyo Dental College 1, 1±19.
Mattila KJ, Pussinen PJ, Paju S (2005) Dental infections and cardiovascular diseases: a review. J Periodontol 78: 2085–8.
Matusow RJ (1979) Acute pulpalalveolar cellulitis syndrome. I. Clinical study of bacterial isolates from pulps and exudates of intact teeth, with description of a specific culture technique. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine and Oral Pathology 48, 70±6.
Mayo CH (1914) Mouth infection as a source of systemic disease. Journal of the American Medical Association 63, 2025±6.
Mayo CH (1922) Focal infection of dental origin. Dental Cosmos 64, 1206±8.
McEntegart MG, Porterfield JS (1949) Bacteremia following dental extraction. Lancet 2, 596±8.
McGowan DA (1982) Endodontics and infective endocarditic. International Endodontic Journal 15, 127±31.
Mealy BL (2006) Periodontal disease and diabetes. A two-way street. J Am Dent Assoc 137: 26s–31s.
Meinig G (1986). Root Canal Cover-Up. California, USA: Bion Publishing.
Melville TH, Slack G (1961) Bacteria isolated from root canals during endodontic treatment. British Dental Journal 110, 127±30.
Melville TH, Birch RH (1967) Root canal and periapical floras of infected teeth. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine and Oral Pathology 23, 93±8.
Merrill A, Vivino JJ, Dowling HF, Hirsh HA (1951) Penicillin in the prevention of postextraction bacteraemia. Journal of the American Dental Association 42, 395±400.
Meurman JH (1997) Dental infections and general health. Quintessence International 28, 807±11.
Miller JL (1926) The problem of the pulpless tooth as seen by the physician. Journal of the American Dental Association 13, 535±45.
Miller WD (1894) An introduction to the study of the bacteriopathology of the dental pulp. Dental Cosmos 36, 505±28.
Mitchell DF, Helman EZ (1953) The role of periodontal foci of infection in systemic disease: an evaluation of the literature. Journal of the American Dental Association 46, 32±53.
Moen, Ketil (2005) afhandling, Haukeland "Oral implications of rheumatoid arthritis. A clinical and immunological approach". Morer G (1977) Arthritis of the knee due to dental origin. Chirurgie 103, 815±8.
Morse DR (1971) The endodontic culture technique. New York State Dental Journal 37, 88±94.
Mulligan R (1980) Late infections in patients with prostheses for total replacement of joints: implications for the dental practitioner. Journal of the American Dental Association 101, 44±6.
Murray M, Moosnick F (1941) Incidence of bacteremia in patients with dental disease. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 26, 801±2.
Murphy NC, Mahar PJ, Fair R (1979) Uveitis and its relation to periapical-periodontal infection. Ohio Dental Journal 53, 24±5.
Musgrove BT, Malden NJ (1989) Mediastenitis and pericarditis caused by dental infection. British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 27, 423±8.
Mylonas AI, Tzerbos FH, Mihalaki M, Rologis D, Boutsikakis I (2007) Cerebral abcess of odontogenic origin. J raniomaxilofac Surg 35: 63–7.
Naschitz JE, Yeshurun D (1985) Occult infection in the facial area presenting as fever of unknown origin. Israel Journal of Medical Sciences 21, 995±8.
Navazesh M, Mulligan R, Sobel S (1994) Toxic shock and Down Syndrome in a dental patient: a case report and review of the literature. Special Care in Dentistry 14, 246± 51.
Navazesh M, Mulligan R (1995) Systemic dissemination as a result of oral infection in individuals 50 years of age and older. Special Care in Dentistry 15, 11±9.
Newman HN (1996) Focal Infection. Journal of Dental Research 75, 1912±9.
Noll R (2004) Historical Review: Autointoxication and focal infection theories of dementia praecox. World J Biol Psychiatry 5: 66–72.
Nord CE, Haimdahl A (1990) Department of Microbiology, Huddinge University Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. Cardiovascular infections: bacterial endocarditis of oral origin. Pathogenesis and prophylaxis.” Journal of Clinical Periodontology Volume 17, Number 7 Part 2. pp. 494-496
Nordh F (1965) Rheumatoid arthritis serum factors in chronic oral inflammation. Odontologisk Revy 16, 12±21.
Nye RN, Waxelbaum EA (1930) Streptococci in infectious (atrophic) arthritis and rheumatic fever. Journal of Experimental Medicine 52, 885±94.
Oakley CM, Somerville W (1981) Prevention of infective endocarditic. British Heart Journal 45, 233±5.
Oakley CM (1987) Controversies in the prophylaxis of infective endocarditic: a cardiological view. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemistry 20 (Suppl. A), 99±104. q 2000 Blackwell Science Ltd International Endodontic Journal, 33, 1±18, 2000 Murray & Saunders Review: Root canal treatment 15.
Offenbacher S, Katz V, Fertik GS, Collins JG, Boyd DL, Maynor GB (1996) Periodontal infection as a risk factor for pre-term low birth weight. Journal of Periodontology 67, 1103±13.
Okabe K, Nakagawa K, Yamamoto E (1995) Factors affecting the occurrence of bacteremia associated with tooth extraction. nternational Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 24, 239±42.
Okada H, Aono M, Yoshida M, Munemoto K, Nishida O, Yokomizo I (1967) Experimental study on focal infection in rabbits by prolonged sensitization through dental pulp canals. Archives of Oral Biology 12, 1017±34.
O'Kell CC, Elliot SD (1935) Bacteremia and oral sepsis. With special reference to the aetiology of subacute endocarditic. Lancet 2, 869±72.
Olsen I (2000) Orale infeksjoner som årsak til systemiske lidelser. Matvett. Tidsskrift for Landsforeningen for kosthold og helse nr. 2, 3–6.
Olsen I (2002) Hvorledes kan marginal periodontitt tenkes å bidra til utvikling av kardiovaskulære sykdommer? Nor Tannlegeforen Tid 112: 416–20.
Otten JE, Pelz K, Christmann G (1987) Anaerobic bacteremia following tooth extraction and removal of osteosynthesis plates. International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 45, 477±80.
Pallasch TJ (1989) Antibiotic prophylaxis: theory and reality. CDA Journal 17, 27±39.
Palmer HD, Kempf M (1939) Streptococcus viridans bacteremia following extraction of teeth. Journal of the American Medical Association 113, 1788±92.
Pappa H, Jones DC (2005) Mediastinitis from odontogenic infection. A case report. Br Dent J 547–8.
Patrick MR, Lewis D (1992) Short of a length: Streptococcus sanguis knee infection from dental source. British Journal of Rheumatology 31, 569.
Paunio K, Impivaara O, Tiekso J, Maki J (1993) Missing teeth and ischaemic heart disease in men aged 4564 years. European Heart Journal 14 (Suppl. K), 54±6.
Payne LZ, Wolfe SW (1994) Septic arthritis in a normal interpharyngeal joint following a dental procedure. Journal of Hand Surgery 19, 815±6.
Peck RE (1925) The medical aspects of oral focal infection. Dental Cosmos 67, 25±8.
Petersdorf RG, Beeson P (1961) Fever of unexplained origin: a report of 100 cases. Medicine 40, 1±30.
Peterson WA (1951) Traumatogenic bacteremias of dental origin. North West Dentistry 30, 110±1.
Pitt Ford TR (1982) The effects on the periapical tissues of bacterial contamination of the filled root canal. International Endodontic Journal 15, 16±22.
Price WA (1923) Dental infections, oral and systemic. vol 1. Cleveland: Penton publishing company.
Price WA (1923) Dental infections and degenerative diseases. vol 2. Cleveland: Penton publishing company.
Price WA (1926) Some systemic expressions of dental infections. Annals of Clinical Medicine 4, 943±6.
Ramadan AE, Zaki SA, Nour ZMN (1975) A study of transient bacteremia following the use of dental floss silk and interdental stimulators. Egyptian Dental Journal 21, 19±28.
Reimann H, Havens WP (1940) Focal infection and systemic disease: a critical appraisal. Journal of the American Medical Association 114, 1±6.
Rhein ML, Krasnow F, Gies W (1926) A prolonged study of the electrical treatment of dental focal infections a preliminary report. Dental Cosmos 68, 971±81.
Rhoads PS, Dick GF (1932) Roentgenographically negative pulpless teeth as foci of infection: results of quantitative cultures. Journal of the American Dental Association 157, 1884±93.
Rhoads PS, Sibley JR, Billings CE (1955) Bacteremia following tonsillectomy. Effect of preoperative treatment with antibiotics in postoperative bacteremia and in bacterial content of tonsils. Journal of the American Medical Association 157, 877±81.
Richards JH (1932) Bacteremia following irritation of foci of infection. Journal of the American Medical Association 99, 1496±7.
Riggio MP, MacFarlane TW, MacKenzie D, Lennon A, Smith AJ, Kinane D (1996) Comparison of polymerase chain reaction and culture methods for detection of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis in subgingival plaque samples. Journal of Periodontal Research 31, 496±501.
Rise E, Smith JF, Bell J (1969) Reduction of bacteremia after oral manipulations. Archives of Otolaryngology 90, 198± 201.
Roberts GJ, Gardner P, Simmons NA (1992) Optimum sampling for detection of dental bacteremia in children. International Journal of Cardiology 35, 311±5.
Robinson HBG, Boling LR (1941) The anachoretic effect in pulpitis. Journal of the American Dental Association 28, 268± 82.
Robinson L, Kraus F, Lazansky JP, Wheeler RE, Gordon S, Johnson V (1950) Bacteremias of dental origin. II. A study of the factors influencing occurrence and detection. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine and Oral Pathology 3, 923±35.
Rogers AH (1976) The oral cavity as a source of potential pathogens in focal infection. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine and Oral Pathology 42, 245±8.
Rogosa M, Hampp EG, Nevin TA, Wagner HN, Driscoll EJ, Baer PN (1960) Blood sampling and cultural studies in the detection of postoperative bacteremias. Journal of the American Medical Association 60, 171±80.
Rosenow EC (1914) Mouth infection as a source of systemic disease. Journal of the American Medical Association 63, 2026±7.
Rosenow EC (1917) The relation of dental infection to systemic disease. Dental Cosmos 59, 485±91.
Rosenow EC (1919) Studies on elective localization. Journal of Dental Research 1, 205±49.
Rosenow EC (1927) Oral sepsis in its relationship to focal infection and elective localization. Journal of the American Dental Association 14, 1417±38.
Ross WS, Rogers K (1943) An experimental investigation of pulp extirpation. A preliminary report. British Dental Journal 74, 253±7.
Rowe AHR, Binnie WH (1977) The incidence and location of micro-organisms following endodontic treatment. British Dental Journal 142, 91±5. International Endodontic Journal, 33, 1±18, 2000 q 2000 Blackwell Science Ltd Review: Root canal treatment Murray & Saunders
Rubin R, Salvati EA, Lewis R (1976) Infected total hip replacement after dental procedures. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine and Oral Pathology 41, 18±23.
Saal C, Mason JC, Cheuk SL, Hill MK (1988) Brain abscess from chronic odontogenic cause: report of a case. Journal of the American Dental Association 117, 453±5.
Samra Y, Barak S, Shaked Y (1986) Dental infection as the cause of pyrexia of unknown origin two case reports. Postgraduate Medical Journal 62, 949±50.
Scannapieco FA (2005) Systemic effects of periodontal diseases. Dent Clin North Am 49: 533–50.
Schirger A, Martin WJ, Roger RQ, Needham GM (1960) Bacterial invasion of blood after oral surgical procedures. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 55, 376±80.
Sciaky I, Sultzenu A (1961) The bacterial flora of diseased pulp. Journal of Dental Medicine 16, 185±8.
Sconyers JR, Crawford JJ, Moriarty JD (1973) Relationship of bacteremia to toothbrushing in patients with periodontitis. Journal of the American Dental Association 87, 616±22.
Scopp IW, Orvieto LD (1971) Gingival degerming by povodine-iodine irrigation: bacteremia reduction in extraction procedures. Journal of the American Dental Association 83, 1294±6.
Sela M, Sharav Y (1975) The dental focal infection as an origin for uveitis. Israel Journal of Dental Medicine 24, 31±5.
Seltzer S, Bender IB, Turkenkopf S (1963) Factors affecting successful repair after root canal therapy. Journal of the American Dental Association 67, 651±62.
Seymour RA, Steele JG (1998) Is there a link between periodontal disease and coronary heart disease? British Dental Journal 184, 33±8.
Shandalow SL (1928) Oral focal sepsis in relation to systemic disease. Dental Cosmos 70, 609±18.
Shih M, Marshall FJ, Rosen S (1970) The bacteriocidal efficiency of sodium hypochlorite as an endodontic irrigant. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine and Oral Pathology 29, 613±9.
Shimizu K, Toyota Y, Koh T et al. (1977) A case of rheumatoid arthritis caused by focal infection from periodontal tissue. Bulletin of Josai Dental University 6, 421±4.
Shinoda T, Mizutani H, Kaneda T, Suzuki M (1987) Fever of unknown origin caused by dental infection. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine and Oral Pathology 64, 175±8.
Shovelton DS, Sidaway DA (1960) Infection in root canals. British Dental Journal 108, 115±8.
Shuster M (1941) Relationship of arthritis to oral diagnosis, defocalization and streptococcus vaccine therapy. American Journal of Orthodontics and Oral Surgery 27, 149±56.
Silver JG, Martin AW, McBride BC (1977) Experimental transient bacteraemias in human subjects with varying degrees of plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation. Journal of Clinical Periodontology 4, 92±9.
Siminoski K (1993) Persistent fever due to occult dental infection: case report and review. Clinical Infectious Diseases 16, 550±4.
Sims W (1973) Some comments on the microbiological examination of root canals. Journal of Dentistry 2, 2±6.
Sjostrom L, Laurell L, Hugoson A, Hakansson JP (1989) Periodontal conditions in adults with rheumatoid arthritis. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 17, 234±6.
Slocumb CH, Binger MW, Barnes AR, Williams HL (1941) Focal infection. Journal of the American Medical Association 117, 2161±4.
Stamler J (1979) Research related to risk factors. Circulation 60, 1575±87.
Steel A (1987) An unusual case of necrotising fasciitis. British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 25, 328±33.
Steffen C, Keresztesi K, Endler AT, Smolen J, Menzel J (1976) Experimental pulpal immunization I. Route of application and demonstration of immune response. Zatschaft Immunitatsforsch Immunobiologie 152, 42±55.
Stewart JE, Wager KA, Friedlander AH, Zadeh HH (2001) The effect of periodontal treatment on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Clin Periodontol 28: 306–10.
Stobberingh EE, Eggink CO (1982) The value of the bacteriological culture in endodontics. II. The bacteriological flora of endodontic specimens. International Endodontic Journal 15, 87±93.
Stoll T, Stucki G, Bruhlmann P, Vogt M, Gschwend N, Michel BA (1996) Infection of a total knee joint prosthesis by Peptostreptococcus Micros and Propionibacterium Acnes in an elderly RA patient: Implant salvage with long term antibiotics and needle aspiration/ irrigation. Clinical Rheumatology 15, 399±402.
Stoykewych AA, Beecroft WA, Cogan AG (1992) Fatal necrotising fasciitis of dental origin. Journal of the Canadian Dental Association 58, 59±62.
Strazzeri JC, Anzel S (1986) Infected total hip arthroplasty due to Actinomyces Israelii after dental extraction. Clinical Orthopaedics 210, 128±31.
Sugita EL (1994) Microbiology of endodontics. In: JI Ingle, LK Bakland, eds. Endodontics, 4th edn. Philadelphia, USA: Williams & Wilkins, 622±3.
Sullivan PM, Johnston RC, Kelley SS (1990) Late infection after total hip replacement caused by an oral organism after dental manipulation. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 72A, 121±3.
Sundqvist G, Eckerbom MI, Larsson AP, Sjogren UT (1979) Capacity of anaerobic bacteria from necrotic dental pulps to induce purulent infection. Infection and Immunology 25, 685±93.
Sundqvist G (1992a) Associations between microbial species in dental root canal infections. Oral Microbiology and Immunology 7, 57±62.
Sundqvist G (1992b) Ecology of the root canal flora. Journal of Endodontics 18, 427±30.
Sundqvist G (1994) Taxonomy, ecology and pathogenicity of the root canal flora. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine and Oral Pathology 78, 522±30.
Syrjanen J, Peltola J, Valtonen V, Iivanainen V, Kaste M, Huttunen JK (1989) Dental infections in association with cerebral infarction in young and middle aged men. Journal of Internal Medicine 225, 179±84.
Syrjanen J (1990) Vascular diseases and oral infections. Journal of Clinical Periodontology 17, 497±500. q 2000 Blackwell Science Ltd International Endodontic Journal, 33, 1±18, 2000 Murray & Saunders Review: Root canal treatment 17
Taklan S (1974) A bacteriological study of the pulp of intact nonvital teeth. Journal of the British Endodontic Society 7, 75±7.
The Pooling Project Research Group (1978) Relationship of blood pressure, serum cholesterol, smoking habit, relative to weight and ECG abnormalities to the incidence of major coronary events. Journal of Chronic Diseases 31, 201±306.
The J, Ebersole JL (1996) Rheumatoid factor from periodontitis patients cross reacts with epitopes on oral bacteria. Oral Diseases 2, 253±62.
Thoma KH (1928) The infected vital dental pulp. Journal of Dental Research 8, 529±50.
Thompson HM (1925) Ocular changes in relation to dental sepsis. Dental Cosmos 67, 649±54.
Tolo K, Jorkjend L (1990) Serum antibodies and loss of periodontal bone in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Clinical Periodontology 17, 288±91.
Trimble DL, Schoenaers AH, Stoelinga PJW (1983) Acute suppurative arthritis of the temporomandibular joint in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Maxillofacial Surgery 11, 92±5.
Tronstad L (1992) Recent development in endodontic research. Scandinavian Journal of Dental Research 100, 52±9.
Tsevat J, Durand-Zaleski I, Pauker SG (1989) Cost effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis for dental procedures in patients with artificial joints. American Journal of Public Health 79, 739±43.
Valentine E, Van Meter M (1930) The localization of streptococci in the tissues of rabbits. Journal of Infectious Diseases 47, 56±82.
Van Dyke TE, Dowell VR, Offenbacher S, Snyder W, Hersh T (1986) Potential role of micro-organisms isolated from periodontal lesions in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Infection and Immunology 53, 671±7.
Van Velzen SKT, Abraham-Inpijn L, Moorer WR (1984) Plaque and systemic disease: a reappraisal of the focal infection concept. Journal of Clinical Periodontology 11, 209±20.
Von Reyn CF, Levy BS, Arbeit RD, Friedland G, Crumpacker CS (1981) Infective endocarditic: an analysis based on strict case definitions. Annals of Internal Medicine 94, 505±18.
Waldman BJ, Mont MA, Hungerford DS (1997) Total knee arthroplasty infections associated with dental procedures. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 343, 164±72.
Wagner KW, Schön R, Schumacher M, Schmelzeisen R, Schulze D (2006) Case report: brain and liver abcess caused by oral infection with Streptococcus intermedius. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 102: 21–3.
Wank HA, Levison ME, Rose LF, Cohen DW (1976) A quantitative measurement of bacteremia and its relationship to plaque control. Journal of Periodontology 47, 683±6.
Wittgow WC, Sabiston CB (1975) Micro-organisms from pulpal chambers of intact teeth with necrotic pulps. Journal of Endodontics 1, 168±71.
Winkler KC, van Amerongen J (1959) Bacteriological results from 4,000 root canal cultures. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine and Oral Pathology 12, 857±75.
WWW.netset.com/~docws/page13.html Internet (1998)0.
WWW.zip.com.au./~rgammal/root_therapies.htm Internet (1999)0.
Yavuzyilmaz E, Yamalik N, Calguner M, Ersoy F, Baykara M, Yeniay I (1992) Clinical and immunological characteristics of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and periodontal disease. Journal of Nihon University School of Dentistry 34, 89±95.
Yoshida M, Fukushima H, Yamamoto K, Ogawa K, Toda T, Sagawa H (1987) Correlation between clinical symptoms and micro-organisms isolated from root canals of teeth with periapical pathosis. Journal of Endodontics 13, 24±8.
Younessi OJ, Walker DM, Ellis P, Dwyer DE (1998) Fatal Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditic. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology and Endodontics 85, 168±71.
Yusof Z, Porter SR, Greenman J, Scully C (1995) Levels of serum IgG against Porphyromonas gingivalis in patients with rapidly rogressive periodontitis, rheumatoid arthritis and adult periodontitis. Journal of Nihon University School of Dentistry 37, 197±200.
Zachariades N, Mezitis M, Stavrinidis P, Konsolaki-Agouridaki E (1988) Mediastinitis, thoracic empyema, and pericarditis as complications of a dental abscess. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 46, 493±5.
Zavistoski J, Dzink J, Onderdonk A, Bartlett J (1980) Quantitative bacteriology of endodontic infections. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine and Oral Pathology 49, 171±4.
Zielke DR, Heggers JP, Harrison JW (1976) A statistical analysis of anaerobic versus aerobic culturing in endodontic therapy. Oral surgery, Oral Medicine and Oral Pathology 42, 830±7.
Zielke DR, Heggers JP, Harrison JW (1979) An analysis of the sensitivity of non-reduced PRS medium in endodontic therapy. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine and Oral Pathology 47, 83±92. International Endodontic Journal, 33, 1±18, 2000 q 2000 Blackwell Science Ltd Review: Root canal treatment Murray & Saunders 18